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The Beryl Institute invites members to submit posts on patient experience related topics. For guidelines and information on submitting a post for consideration, please contact us at info@theberylinstitute.org.

 

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Calculating and Understanding the Drivers of a Net Promoter Score in Health Care

Posted By Andrew S. Gallan, PhD, Monday, May 15, 2017
Updated: Thursday, May 11, 2017

In 2016, Advocate Health Care, the largest health system in the Chicagoland area, integrated into its performance measures a Net Promoter-like score, which they call a Patient Loyalty Score (PLS). Net Promoter Score (NPS) is a valuable metric, and it has been adopted by many companies in almost every industry. NPS is a simple, easy to use, and easily calculated metric that is intuitively associated with business health by assessing a respondent’s likelihood to recommend an organization to a friend or colleague.[1] Health care organizations are beginning to see its value, and are exploring how it is best calculated and used.

For Advocate Health Care, PLS is constructed using data from CAHPS and vendor surveys, and utilizes the likelihood to recommend question. Only a top-box score is defined as a promoter, and varying bottom scores are defined as representing a detractor. That is, for a five-point scale (ED vendor survey) the bottom three responses are categorized as detractors; for a four-point scale (HCAHPS) the bottom two are detractors; and, for a three point scale (CG-CAHPS) only the bottom score is a detractor.

Some issues with the measure include the referent (CG-CAHPS asks about likelihood to recommend the provider’s office, ED refers to the department, and HCAHPS asks about the hospital), and the limited scale width (the original NPS scale is 11 points). However, for me, having a patient-provided measure outweighs the issues, and I commend the organization for holding people accountable for patient perceptions of care. The strength of this metric is to create system-wide responsibility for a patient-provided measure, thereby ensuring that the patient’s voice is heard.

Like most organizations, Advocate Health Care is interested in earning increased rates of positive word-of-mouth recommendations. As a result, I recently engaged with Advocate as an Academic-in-Residence. In this role, championed by EVP & COO Bill Santulli, SVP & CNO Susan K. Campbell, and VP Information and Technology Innovation Tina Esposito, I performed analytics to identify drivers of PLS. The two important research questions that drove this project were:

  1. Which variables are the most important drivers of PLS?
  2. What can we learn from patient comments about potential drivers of PLS?

In order to investigate these questions, I was provided with almost two years of HCAHPS, CG-CAHPS, and ED survey data and patient comments. Top line results included the following:

Inpatient (HCAHPS): Nurses and personal issues (privacy, pain, and emotional issues) had by far the most impact on patients. Positive comments centered on comfort, communication, and care. Negative comments focused on food.

Outpatient (CG-CAHPS): The face-to-face interaction between a patient and physician is the “moment of truth,” and as such is what the patient apparently will use to evaluate the entire experience. Positive comments centered on comfort and communication. Negative comments focused on waiting and rude treatment. 

Emergency Department (Vendor Data): When patients are in the ED, taking care of personal issues will have the greatest impact on PLS. These issues include keeping patients informed about delays, caring about patients as people, pain control, and providing information about caring for yourself at home. Positive comments centered on comfort, communication, and care. Negative comments focused on feeling vulnerable and afraid in a busy and foreign environment.

As a result of this project, Advocate Health Care is now embarking on disseminating the results, integrating insights into daily practice, and evaluating additional questions that emerged from the analysis. I’d be interested in hearing more about what your organization thinks about NPS, how you use it, and what you have learned as a result!

[1] NPS was first proposed by Fredrick F. Reichheld, (2003), "The One Number You Need to Grow," Harvard Business Review, 81 (December), 46-54. For more on advantages and issues utilizing NPS in health care, see https://thepatientoutcomesblog.com/2012/11/12/net-promoter-score-in-health-care/

Andrew S. Gallan PhD is an assistant professor at DePaul University in Chicago, a member of the Editorial Review Board of Patient Experience Journal, and principal of Dignity in Action, Inc., a PX analytics and advisory company (www.dignityinactioninc.com). Andrew can be contacted via email: agallan@depaul.edu

Tags:  CAHPS  CG-CAHPS  data  drivers  HCAHPS  net promoter score  NPS  patient loyalty  patient loyalty score  survey 

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The Return on Investments of Empathy In Measuring Patient Experience

Posted By Dr. Avnesh Ratnanesan, Friday, March 10, 2017
Updated: Tuesday, March 7, 2017

Empathy in healthcare is both a traditional concept as it is a new-age buzzword. That’s because it has never lost its importance as a legitimate element of a patient’s healing process.

Simply defined, empathy is the capacity to walk in the shoes of another. Essentially, the ability to understand, appreciate and relate to someone else’s emotions. There is more chatter in the industry now about defining, teaching, learning and measuring empathy in healthcare than there has ever been.

Making emotions a visible part of your (formal or informal) measurement validates the feelings of patients which in turn, 3promotes patient satisfaction, enhances the quality and quantity of clinical data, improves adherence and generates a more therapeutic patient-physician relationship.

Ultimately, it all links back to the Net Promoter Score (NPS) or the Friends and Family Test (FFT). A key HCAHPS question, the NPS or FFT asks the patient point-blank if they would recommend the hospital to family and friends.

There’s your ROI.

EMOTIONS AND NPS

Human emotions are core to every patient experience. At every stage of the patient journey, there is a feeling, sentiment or attitude that will, collectively, define the experience for the patient at the end of their engagement with a healthcare setting.

Hospitals are often obsessed with benchmarking against other hospitals in term of their respective performance indicators, however there is a need to first benchmark against the EXPECTATIONS of your own patient population:

  • If the experience < expectations, then you have a satisfaction deficit which leads to frustration and anger
  • If the experience > expectations, then you have a satisfaction profit which leads to delight and excitement

Frustration and anger are detractors to the patient experience. If these emotions are experienced, then you can be sure that the patient is on their way to relay their negative experiences to others or not return, or both! Feelings of delight and excitement on the other hand naturally motivate patients to ‘promote’ your healthcare setting to others.

MEASURING EMOTIONS

Measuring emotions is key part of our 6E Framework, a step-by-step guide to producing a true holistic picture of patient experience. Its measurement impacts the full spectrum of this framework:

Understanding the real patient EXPERIENCE through EMOTIONAL data ENERGISES staff in their purpose and EXECUTION of solutions. Successes are repeated to produce EXCELLENCE in delivery and organizational capability in patient experience EVOLVES.

How do you draw these emotions out of a patient so you can understand, measure and respond appropriately? Some state it boldly, some 3hide their emotions through seemingly rational questions or casually drop a comment about their emotions, to test the waters on how it would be received in the healthcare setting. Pick up on these clues, don’t ignore it or change the topic.

For the uncertain and non-forthcoming patient, surveys are a great way to get emotional data. One would imagine that a survey asking about their emotions would not only surprise them but send a clear message that there is a space in that setting to talk about emotions, that a culture exists that encourages and supports emotions.

INTELLIGENCE FROM EMOTIONAL DATA

When the clinician and non-clinician are able to recognize the emotions around a patient, it allows them to be more authentic and honest in the support given to the person (not patient).

Clinicians are able to view the person’s emotions within a more accurate context and address it in specific ways: 2

  • Learning: Where the patient is fearful because of a lack of information, there is an opportunity for staff to help educate the patient to reduce his fear
  • Empowerment: Where the patient feels helpless in the face of his health, there is an opportunity for staff to develop the patient’s sense of power over the situation through education, tools and technology
  • Self-discipline: Where the patient is frustrated over their personal management of their health, there is an opportunity for staff to help the patient develop discipline through motivation, tools and technology
  • Feelings of control: Where the patient is overwhelmed with the amount of information around their diagnosis, there is an opportunity for staff to ensure that the communication of information is at a pace and volume that the patient is comfortable with and to involve the patient’s family members or friends in managing overwhelm.

When an organization can undertake the above in a systematic way, an ‘energy’ or a vibe starts to infiltrate through the ranks. Clinicians and non-clinicians start to discover or re-discover the meaning in their roles and the organization becomes more congruent with its purpose.

What’s the vibe like where you are?

Sources:

1. Empathy and Emotional Intelligence: What is it Really About?’, International Journal of Caring Sciences, Volume 1 Issue 3, Alexander Technological Education Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece http://internationaljournalofcaringsciences.org/docs/Vol1_Issue3_03_Ioannidou.pdf
2. Adapted/Inspired from information from a Chapter Abstract from Patient Emotions and Patient Education Technology:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128017371000020
3. “Let me see if I have this right...”: Words That Help Build Empathy, Coulehan JL, Platt FW, Egener B, Frankel R, Lin CT, Lown B, et al. (2001). 

Dr. Avi Ratnanesan is a medical doctor with broad healthcare sector experience including hospitals, biotech, pharmaceuticals and the wellness industry. He is a leading expert who coaches and consults to senior executives, entrepreneurs, practitioners, organizations and governments.

Tags:  emotion  empathy  expectations  experience  NPS  Patient Experience  ROI 

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